Cyber security as opposed to popular belief is more than hacking, its encompasses the following three aspects:
Malware is a term used to describe malicious software, including spyware, ransomware, viruses, and worms.
Malware breaches a network through a vulnerability, typically when a user clicks a dangerous link or email attachment that then installs risky software
Once inside the system, malware can do the following:
Practice of sending fraudulent communications that appear to come from a reputable source, usually through email. The goal is to steal sensitive data like credit card and login information or to install malware on the victim’s machine. Phishing is an increasingly common cyberthreat.
Man in the Middle
Also known as eavesdropping attacks, occur when attackers insert themselves into a two- party transaction. Once the attackers interrupt the traffic, they can filter and steal data.
A denial-of-service attack floods systems, servers, or networks with traffic to exhaust resources and bandwidth. As a result, the system is unable to fulfill legitimate requests. Attackers can also use multiple compromised devices to launch this attack. This is known as a distributed-denial-of-service (DDoS) attack
Zero Day Exploit
A zero-day exploit hits after a network vulnerability is announced but before a patch or solution is implemented. Attackers target the disclosed vulnerability during this window of time. Zero-day vulnerability threat detection requires constant awareness.
To put it in a simple analogy, consider the Covid situation. You need a overall policy first on handling a crisis and a response strategy in the event of a health crisis- which is done by cyber security managers and architects. While in the ground there is a team which continuously monitors travellers coming from various countries and making sure they can pick up any imminent infected people. Next step is in assessing the situation scale on continuous basis, analysing the data of infected people and identifying the root cause of the virus infection. The next step is to mitigate on finding solutions to contain the virus using either by developing medication or consider in our case a lock down. Once the entire situation comes under control you continuously audit the entire process to find inefficiency or loopholes.